自動車用後部乗員警報システムのグローバル市場(2022-2031):乗用車両、小型商用車両

• 英文タイトル:Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market (Sensor Type: Pressure Sensor, Ultrasonic Sensor, Radar Sensor; Technology: Rear-Door Logic, Motion Detection, Camera Systems) - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast, 2022-2031

Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market (Sensor Type: Pressure Sensor, Ultrasonic Sensor, Radar Sensor; Technology: Rear-Door Logic, Motion Detection, Camera Systems) - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast, 2022-2031「自動車用後部乗員警報システムのグローバル市場(2022-2031):乗用車両、小型商用車両」(市場規模、市場予測)調査レポートです。• レポートコード:MRC2301D015
• 出版社/出版日:Transparency Market Research / 2022年11月8日
• レポート形態:英文、PDF、220ページ
• 納品方法:Eメール
• 産業分類:自動車
• 販売価格(消費税別)
  Single User¥869,250 (USD5,795)▷ お問い合わせ
  Multi User¥1,319,250 (USD8,795)▷ お問い合わせ
  Corporate License¥1,769,250 (USD11,795)▷ お問い合わせ
• ご注文方法:お問い合わせフォーム記入又はEメールでご連絡ください。
• お支払方法:銀行振込(納品後、ご請求書送付)
レポート概要
Transparency Market Research社の市場調査レポートでは、世界の自動車用後部乗員警報システム市場の現状について調査・分析し、エグゼクティブサマリー、市場概要、技術概要、価格動向分析、技術の進歩、影響要因、車種別(乗用車両、小型商用車両)分析、センサー種類別(圧力センサー、超音波センサー、レーダーセンサー)分析、技術別(後方ドアロジック、動作検出、カメラシステム)分析、販売チャネル別(OEM、アフターマーケット)分析、地域別(北米、ヨーロッパ、アジア太平洋、中東・アフリカ、中南米)分析、競争状況など、以下の構成でお届けします。また、当レポートに掲載されている企業情報には、Hyundai Mobis、Sense A Life、Evenflo、Baby Alert International、Elepho Inc.、AISIN SEIKI Co., Ltd.、Texas Instruments Incorporated、Robert Bosch GmbH、MAYSER GMBH & CO. KG、Flexpoint、Othersなどが含まれています。
・エグゼクティブサマリー
・市場概要
・技術概要
・価格動向分析
・技術の進歩
・影響要因
・世界の自動車用後部乗員警報システム市場規模:車種別
- 乗用車両における市場規模
- 小型商用車両における市場規模
・世界の自動車用後部乗員警報システム市場規模:センサー種類別
- 圧力センサーの市場規模
- 超音波センサーの市場規模
- レーダーセンサーの市場規模
・世界の自動車用後部乗員警報システム市場規模:技術別
- 後方ドアロジックにおける市場規模
- 動作検出における市場規模
- カメラシステムにおける市場規模
・世界の自動車用後部乗員警報システム市場規模:販売チャネル別
- OEMチャネルの市場規模
- アフターマーケットチャネルの市場規模
・世界の自動車用後部乗員警報システム市場規模:地域別
- 北米の自動車用後部乗員警報システム市場規模
- ヨーロッパの自動車用後部乗員警報システム市場規模
- アジア太平洋の自動車用後部乗員警報システム市場規模
- 中東・アフリカの自動車用後部乗員警報システム市場規模
- 中南米の自動車用後部乗員警報システム市場規模
・競争状況

Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market – Scope of Report
TMR’s report on the global automotive rear occupant alert system market studies the past as well as the current growth trends and opportunities to gain valuable insights of the indicators of the market during the forecast period from 2022 to 2031. The report provides revenue of the global automotive rear occupant alert system market for the period 2017–2031, considering 2021 as the base year and 2031 as the forecast year. The report also provides the compound annual growth rate (CAGR %) of the global automotive rear occupant alert system market from 2022 to 2031.

The report has been prepared after an extensive research. Primary research involved bulk of the research efforts, wherein analysts carried out interviews with key opinion leaders, industry leaders, and opinion makers. Secondary research involved referring to key players’ product literature, annual reports, press releases, and relevant documents to understand the automotive rear occupant alert system market.

Secondary research also included Internet sources, statistical data from government agencies, websites, and trade associations. Analysts employed a combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches to study various attributes of the global automotive rear occupant alert system market.

The report includes an elaborate executive summary, along with a snapshot of the growth behavior of various segments included in the scope of the study. Moreover, the report sheds light on the changing competitive dynamics in the global automotive rear occupant alert system market. These serve as valuable tools for existing market players as well as for entities interested in participating in the global automotive rear occupant alert system market.

The report delves into the competitive landscape of the global automotive rear occupant alert system market. Key players operating in the global automotive rear occupant alert system market have been identified and each one of these has been profiled, in terms of various attributes. Company overview, financial standings, recent developments, and SWOT are attributes of players in the global automotive rear occupant alert system market profiled in this report.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research methodology will be a combination of exhaustive primary and secondary research to analyze the market automotive rear occupant alert system.

Secondary Research

Secondary research includes a search of company literature, technical writing, patent data, Internet sources, and statistical data from government websites, trade associations, and agencies. This has proven to be the most reliable, effective, and successful approach for obtaining precise data, capturing industry participants’ insights, and recognizing business opportunities.

Secondary research sources that we typically refer, but are not limited to:

Company websites, presentations, annual reports, white papers, technical paper, product brochure
Internal and external proprietary databases and relevant patents
National government documents, statistical databases, and market reports
News articles, press releases, and webcasts specific to companies operating in the market

Specific Secondary Sources:

Industry Sources:
WorldWideScience.org
Elsevier, Inc.
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
PubMed
NCBI
Department of Health Care Service
Trade Data Sources
Trade Map
UN Comtrade
Trade Atlas
Company Information
OneSource Business Browser
Hoover’s
Factiva
Bloomberg
Mergers & Acquisitions
Thomson Mergers & Acquisitions
MergerStat
Profound

Primary Research

During the course of research, we conduct in-depth interviews and discussions with a wide range of key industry participants and opinion leaders. Primary research represents bulk of research efforts, supplemented by extensive secondary research.

We conduct primary interviews on the ongoing basis with industry participants and commentators to validate data and analysis. A typical research interview fulfills the following functions:

Provides first-hand information on market size, market trends, growth trends, competitive landscape, outlook, etc.
Helps in validating and strengthening secondary research findings
Further develops the analysis team’s expertise and market understanding
Primary research involves e-mail interactions, telephonic interviews, as well as face-to-face interviews for each market, category, segment, and sub-segment across geographies

Participants who typically take part in such a process include, but are not limited to:

Industry participants: Marketing/product managers, market intelligence managers, and regional sales managers
Purchasing/Sourcing managers, technical personnel, distributors
Outside experts: Investment bankers, valuation experts, and research analysts specializing in specific markets
Key opinion leaders specializing in different areas corresponding to different industry verticals

List of primary participants, but not limited to:

Advanced Oncotherapy PLC
Danfysik A/S
Hitachi, Ltd.
IBA Worldwide
Mevion Medical Systems, Inc.

Data Triangulation: Information culled from “Secondary & Primary Sources” is cross-checked with “TMR Knowledge Repository”, which is updated every quarter.

Market Estimation: Market size estimations involved in-depth study of product features, technology updates, geographic presence, product demand, sales data (value or volume), historical year-on-year growth, and others. Other approaches were also utilized to derive market size and forecasts. Where no hard data was available, we employed modeling techniques in order to produce comprehensive datasets. A rigorous methodology has been adopted, wherein the available hard data are cross-referenced with the following data types to produce estimates:

Demographic Data: Healthcare expenditure, inflation rates, and others
Industry Indicators: R&D investment, technology stage, and infrastructure, sector growth, and facilities

Market Forecasting: Market forecasts for various segments are derived taking into account drivers, restraints/challenges, and opportunities prevailing in the market and considering advantages/disadvantages of segments/sub-segments over other segments/sub-segments. Business environment, historical sales pattern, unmet needs, competitive intensity, and country-wise surgery data are some of the other pivotal factors, which are considered to derive market forecasts.

レポート目次

1. Executive Summary
1.1. Global Market Outlook
1.1.1. Market Size in Units, Value US$ Mn, 2017-2031
1.2. TMR Analysis and Recommendations
1.3. Competitive Dashboard Analysis
2. Market Overview
2.1. Market Coverage / Taxonomy
2.2. Market Definition / Scope / Limitations
2.3. Market Dynamics
2.3.1. Drivers
2.3.2. Restraints
2.3.3. Opportunities
2.4. Market Factor Analysis
2.4.1. Porter’s Five Force Analysis
2.4.2. SWOT Analysis
2.5. Regulatory Scenario
2.6. Key Trend Analysis
2.7. Value Chain Analysis
2.7.1. List of Key Manufacturers
2.7.2. List of Customers
2.7.3. Level of Integration
2.8. Regulatory Scenario for Automotive Rear Occupant Alert Systems
2.9. SWOT Analysis
3. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market: Technological Overview
4. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market: Price Trend Analysis
5. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market: Technological Advancement
6. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market: Impact factors
6.1. Consumer Concern
6.2. Vehicle manufacturers Concern
6.3. In-vehicle safety
7. Global Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market, by Vehicle Type
7.1. Market Snapshot
7.1.1. Introduction, Definition, and Key Findings
7.1.2. Market Growth & Y-o-Y Projections
7.1.3. Base Point Share Analysis
7.2. Global Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Vehicle Type
7.2.1. Passenger Vehicles
7.2.1.1. Sedan
7.2.1.2. Hatchback
7.2.1.3. SUVs
7.2.2. Light Commercial Vehicles
8. Global Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market, by Sensor Type
8.1. Market Snapshot
8.1.1. Introduction, Definition, and Key Findings
8.1.2. Market Growth & Y-o-Y Projections
8.1.3. Base Point Share Analysis
8.2. Global Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Sensor Type
8.2.1. Pressure Sensor
8.2.2. Ultrasonic Sensor
8.2.3. Radar Sensor
9. Global Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market, by Technology
9.1. Market Snapshot
9.1.1. Introduction, Definition, and Key Findings
9.1.2. Market Growth & Y-o-Y Projections
9.1.3. Base Point Share Analysis
9.2. Global Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Technology
9.2.1. Rear-Door Logic
9.2.2. Motion Detection
9.2.3. Camera Systems
10. Global Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market, by Sales Channel
10.1. Market Snapshot
10.1.1. Introduction, Definition, and Key Findings
10.1.2. Market Growth & Y-o-Y Projections
10.1.3. Base Point Share Analysis
10.2. Global Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Sales Channel
10.2.1. OEM
10.2.2. Aftermarket
11. Global Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market, by Region
11.1. Market Snapshot
11.1.1. Introduction, Definition, and Key Findings
11.1.2. Market Growth & Y-o-Y Projections
11.1.3. Base Point Share Analysis
11.2. Global Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Region
11.2.1. North America
11.2.2. Europe
11.2.3. Asia Pacific
11.2.4. Middle East & Africa
11.2.5. South America
12. North America Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market
12.1. Market Snapshot
12.2. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Vehicle Type
12.2.1. Passenger Vehicles
12.2.1.1. Sedan
12.2.1.2. Hatchback
12.2.1.3. SUVs
12.2.2. Light Commercial Vehicles
12.3. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Sensor Type
12.3.1. Pressure Sensor
12.3.2. Ultrasonic Sensor
12.3.3. Radar Sensor
12.4. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Technology
12.4.1. Rear-Door Logic
12.4.2. Motion Detection
12.4.3. Camera Systems
12.5. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Sales Channel
12.5.1. OEM
12.5.2. Aftermarket
12.6. Key Country Analysis – North America Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Size Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031
12.6.1. U.S.
12.6.2. Canada
12.6.3. Mexico
13. Europe Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market
13.1. Market Snapshot
13.2. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Vehicle Type
13.2.1. Passenger Vehicles
13.2.1.1. Sedan
13.2.1.2. Hatchback
13.2.1.3. SUVs
13.2.2. Light Commercial Vehicles
13.3. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Sensor Type
13.3.1. Pressure Sensor
13.3.2. Ultrasonic Sensor
13.3.3. Radar Sensor
13.4. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Technology
13.4.1. Rear-Door Logic
13.4.2. Motion Detection
13.4.3. Camera Systems
13.5. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Sales Channel
13.5.1. OEM
13.5.2. Aftermarket
13.6. Key Country Analysis – Europe Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Size Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031
13.6.1. Germany
13.6.2. France
13.6.3. U.K.
13.6.4. Italy
13.6.5. Spain
13.6.6. Nordic Region
13.6.7. Rest of Europe
14. Asia Pacific Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market
14.1. Market Snapshot
14.2. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Vehicle Type
14.2.1. Passenger Vehicles
14.2.1.1. Sedan
14.2.1.2. Hatchback
14.2.1.3. SUVs
14.2.2. Light Commercial Vehicles
14.3. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Sensor Type
14.3.1. Pressure Sensor
14.3.2. Ultrasonic Sensor
14.3.3. Radar Sensor
14.4. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Technology
14.4.1. Rear-Door Logic
14.4.2. Motion Detection
14.4.3. Camera Systems
14.5. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Sales Channel
14.5.1. OEM
14.5.2. Aftermarket
14.6. Key Country Analysis – Asia-Pacific Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Size Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031
14.6.1. China
14.6.2. India
14.6.3. Japan
14.6.4. ASEAN Countries
14.6.5. South Korea
14.6.6. ANZ
14.6.7. Rest of Asia Pacific
15. Middle East & Africa Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market
15.1. Market Snapshot
15.2. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Vehicle Type
15.2.1. Passenger Vehicles
15.2.1.1. Sedan
15.2.1.2. Hatchback
15.2.1.3. SUVs
15.2.2. Light Commercial Vehicles
15.3. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Sensor Type
15.3.1. Pressure Sensor
15.3.2. Ultrasonic Sensor
15.3.3. Radar Sensor
15.4. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Technology
15.4.1. Rear-Door Logic
15.4.2. Motion Detection
15.4.3. Camera Systems
15.5. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Sales Channel
15.5.1. OEM
15.5.2. Aftermarket
15.6. Key Country Analysis – Middle East & Africa Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Size Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031
15.6.1. GCC
15.6.2. South Africa
15.6.3. Turkey
15.6.4. Rest of Middle East & Africa
16. South America Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market
16.1. Market Snapshot
16.2. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Vehicle Type
16.2.1. Passenger Vehicles
16.2.1.1. Sedan
16.2.1.2. Hatchback
16.2.1.3. SUVs
16.2.2. Light Commercial Vehicles
16.3. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Sensor Type
16.3.1. Pressure Sensor
16.3.2. Ultrasonic Sensor
16.3.3. Radar Sensor
16.4. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Technology
16.4.1. Rear-Door Logic
16.4.2. Motion Detection
16.4.3. Camera Systems
16.5. Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Volume (Million Units), Value (US$ Mn) Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031, By Sales Channel
16.5.1. OEM
16.5.2. Aftermarket
16.6. Key Country Analysis – South America Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market Size Analysis & Forecast, 2017-2031
16.6.1. Brazil
16.6.2. Argentina
16.6.3. Rest of South America
17. Competitive Landscape
17.1. Company Share Analysis/ Brand Share Analysis, 2021
17.2. Company Analysis for each player (Company Overview, Company Footprints, Production Locations, Product Portfolio, Competitors & Customers, Subsidiaries & Parent Organization, Recent Developments, Financial Analysis, Profitability, Revenue Share)
17.3. Company Profile/ Key Players
17.3.1. Hyundai Mobis
17.3.1.1. Company Overview
17.3.1.2. Company Footprints
17.3.1.3. Production Locations
17.3.1.4. Product Portfolio
17.3.1.5. Competitors & Customers
17.3.1.6. Subsidiaries & Parent Organization
17.3.1.7. Recent Developments
17.3.1.8. Financial Analysis
17.3.1.9. Profitability
17.3.1.10. Revenue Share
17.3.2. Sense A Life
17.3.2.1. Company Overview
17.3.2.2. Company Footprints
17.3.2.3. Production Locations
17.3.2.4. Product Portfolio
17.3.2.5. Competitors & Customers
17.3.2.6. Subsidiaries & Parent Organization
17.3.2.7. Recent Developments
17.3.2.8. Financial Analysis
17.3.2.9. Profitability
17.3.2.10. Revenue Share
17.3.3. Evenflo
17.3.3.1. Company Overview
17.3.3.2. Company Footprints
17.3.3.3. Production Locations
17.3.3.4. Product Portfolio
17.3.3.5. Competitors & Customers
17.3.3.6. Subsidiaries & Parent Organization
17.3.3.7. Recent Developments
17.3.3.8. Financial Analysis
17.3.3.9. Profitability
17.3.3.10. Revenue Share
17.3.4. Baby Alert International
17.3.4.1. Company Overview
17.3.4.2. Company Footprints
17.3.4.3. Production Locations
17.3.4.4. Product Portfolio
17.3.4.5. Competitors & Customers
17.3.4.6. Subsidiaries & Parent Organization
17.3.4.7. Recent Developments
17.3.4.8. Financial Analysis
17.3.4.9. Profitability
17.3.4.10. Revenue Share
17.3.5. Elepho Inc.
17.3.5.1. Company Overview
17.3.5.2. Company Footprints
17.3.5.3. Production Locations
17.3.5.4. Product Portfolio
17.3.5.5. Competitors & Customers
17.3.5.6. Subsidiaries & Parent Organization
17.3.5.7. Recent Developments
17.3.5.8. Financial Analysis
17.3.5.9. Profitability
17.3.5.10. Revenue Share
17.3.6. AISIN SEIKI Co., Ltd.
17.3.6.1. Company Overview
17.3.6.2. Company Footprints
17.3.6.3. Production Locations
17.3.6.4. Product Portfolio
17.3.6.5. Competitors & Customers
17.3.6.6. Subsidiaries & Parent Organization
17.3.6.7. Recent Developments
17.3.6.8. Financial Analysis
17.3.6.9. Profitability
17.3.6.10. Revenue Share
17.3.7. Texas Instruments Incorporated
17.3.7.1. Company Overview
17.3.7.2. Company Footprints
17.3.7.3. Production Locations
17.3.7.4. Product Portfolio
17.3.7.5. Competitors & Customers
17.3.7.6. Subsidiaries & Parent Organization
17.3.7.7. Recent Developments
17.3.7.8. Financial Analysis
17.3.7.9. Profitability
17.3.7.10. Revenue Share
17.3.8. Robert Bosch GmbH
17.3.8.1. Company Overview
17.3.8.2. Company Footprints
17.3.8.3. Production Locations
17.3.8.4. Product Portfolio
17.3.8.5. Competitors & Customers
17.3.8.6. Subsidiaries & Parent Organization
17.3.8.7. Recent Developments
17.3.8.8. Financial Analysis
17.3.8.9. Profitability
17.3.8.10. Revenue Share
17.3.9. MAYSER GMBH & CO. KG
17.3.9.1. Company Overview
17.3.9.2. Company Footprints
17.3.9.3. Production Locations
17.3.9.4. Product Portfolio
17.3.9.5. Competitors & Customers
17.3.9.6. Subsidiaries & Parent Organization
17.3.9.7. Recent Developments
17.3.9.8. Financial Analysis
17.3.9.9. Profitability
17.3.9.10. Revenue Share
17.3.10. Flexpoint
17.3.10.1. Company Overview
17.3.10.2. Company Footprints
17.3.10.3. Production Locations
17.3.10.4. Product Portfolio
17.3.10.5. Competitors & Customers
17.3.10.6. Subsidiaries & Parent Organization
17.3.10.7. Recent Developments
17.3.10.8. Financial Analysis
17.3.10.9. Profitability
17.3.10.10. Revenue Share
17.3.11. Others
17.3.11.1. Company Overview
17.3.11.2. Company Footprints
17.3.11.3. Production Locations
17.3.11.4. Product Portfolio
17.3.11.5. Competitors & Customers
17.3.11.6. Subsidiaries & Parent Organization
17.3.11.7. Recent Developments
17.3.11.8. Financial Analysis
17.3.11.9. Profitability
17.3.11.10. Revenue Share




• 英文レポート名:Automotive Rear Occupant Alert System Market (Sensor Type: Pressure Sensor, Ultrasonic Sensor, Radar Sensor; Technology: Rear-Door Logic, Motion Detection, Camera Systems) - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast, 2022-2031
• 日本語訳:自動車用後部乗員警報システムのグローバル市場(2022-2031):乗用車両、小型商用車両
• レポートコード:MRC2301D015お問い合わせ(見積依頼・ご注文・質問)